Pet Keen is reader-supported. When you buy via links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission at no cost to you. Learn more.

How Often Do Roosters and Hens Mate? What You Need To Know!

rooster and hen

If you keep chickens, it’s beneficial to add a rooster to your flock. The rooster will loudly warn the flock when he perceives danger nearby that could be a predator such as a fox. If you want to get a rooster to produce chicks, you should know a little bit about the mating and breeding process.

Roosters and hens mate often, and we mean a lot! You may be surprised to learn that the typical rooster is very interested in mating. In fact, he will mate anywhere between 10 and 30 times a day. Whew!

It’s not uncommon for a rooster to partake in excessive mating wherein he stresses the hens and even makes them lose their physical conditioning! That is why experts recommend having the correct rooster to hen ratio which is one rooster to every seven to ten hens. This way, the rooster can divide his time without putting the hens through so much stress.

new chicken divider

How a Rooster Mates

Roosters are physically challenged when it comes to copulation because their male reproductive parts are inside their bodies. It takes some real physical agility for a rooster to mate with a hen and it’s not always a pretty picture to watch. However, the mating process occurs quickly and usually only takes a few seconds, once the rooster figures it all out.

To do the deed, the rooster positions himself behind the hen. He then stands on her back and steadies himself with his feet. As the hen crouches down and spreads her wings for balance, the rooster’s sex organ called a papilla touches the hen’s wherein sperm is transferred from his body to hers. And that’s about it!

Once the mating is over, the rooster gets off the hen and goes about his business which usually includes looking for his next mating partner. Yes, a rooster spends most of his waking hours going from hen to hen in his never-ending quest for love!

rooster and hen
Image Credit: Ihor Berkyta, Shutterstock

Hens Don’t Need a Rooster to Produce Eggs

If you’re a newbie to the chicken world, you may not know that hens don’t need roosters to produce eggs. This is because they produce infertile eggs about once a day. The main benefit of adding a rooster to your flock is to get fertilized eggs that will hatch into chicks about three weeks after they’re laid.

Roosters and Hens Start Mating When They’re Young

Now that you have an idea about the high sex drive of roosters, it may not surprise you to learn that roosters start mating when they’re young. A rooster is sexually mature at about 4 months of age when they’re producing sperm.

Hens reach sexual maturity at around 5 months of age. As soon as a hen can lay eggs, she’s ready to mate with a rooster. Once a hen has mated, it will take about 10 days for her to lay fertilized eggs and another 21 days after that for the eggs to hatch into healthy chicks.

Problems Can Occur During the Mating Process

It’s not always all wine and roses in the rooster and hen mating process as sometimes things go wrong. For example, if a rooster isn’t dominant over a hen, she may give him the cold shoulder and refuse to mate. This can be seen when a young, new rooster is introduced to the flock. The older hens may fight him off to send a clear message that they’re simply not interested.

Another problem that can disrupt the mating process is too many fluffy feathers at the business end of a hen. To make insemination possible, you can trim the feathers around the cloaca so the rooster can mate with her.

And then there’s a size difference that can get in the way. For example, if a small rooster is trying to mate with a large hen, things can get dicey. However, with sheer determination, the little guy could very well succeed, even if it takes a while!

Dealing With Aggressive Roosters

The typical rooster struts around like he’s the king of the coop and he is! A rooster is naturally protective of the flock and aggressive too. Using aggressive behavior like pecking the hens on their backs and heads, he gets them to mate with him, whether they want to or not.

While this type of aggressiveness is all fine and good, sometimes a rooster can be overly aggressive and peck the hens excessively to the point where they bleed. If this happens, you need to get to the bottom of things and do it fast. A few things that can cause a rooster to be overly aggressive include:

  • A cramped coop
  • An inadequate diet lacking in fiber
  • A non-soft coop floor that hurts your chickens’ feet
  • A salt deficiency
  • Boredom

Once you figure out what is causing your rooster to act aggressively toward your hens, fix the issue to abolish the chicken divider


If you decide to get a rooster, be sure to have the right rooster to hen ratio to keep your flock in balance. Over-mating of your hens can cause stress and illness so do the math correctly or else you may have issues. A rooster will watch over your flock and warn the others of danger, that is when he’s not busy mating with all those females!

Featured Image Credit: klimkin, Pixabay

Our vets

Want to talk to a vet online?

Whether you have concerns about your dog, cat, or other pet, trained vets have the answers!

Our vets