Horses are herbivorous. They do not eat meat and, while you must feed the right mixture of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and protein, your horse will have a relatively simple diet. Generally, you need to ensure that you provide enough roughage, that the hay you provide is a good quality one, and that you provide water as well as nutritional extras like salt. Below, we cover the basics of how much you should feed to maintain good equine health.
What Do Horses Eat?
Foods To Offer
Foods To Avoid
Like all animals, horses need water to survive, and they should be given a constant and readily available supply of fresh water. At the very least, they should have fresh water twice a day and you should ensure that it isn’t allowed to freeze in cold temperatures.
Horse Feeding Chart
|Level of Work||Hay||Grains|
|No Work||20–25 pounds||None|
|Light (1-2 hours/day)||15–20 pounds||1–3 pounds (1–1.5 pounds of grain per hour of work)|
|Medium (2-4 hours/day)||15–20 pounds||3–8 pounds (1.5–2 pounds of grain per hour of work)|
|Heavy (4 or more hours/ day)||15–20 pounds||5–10 pounds (1.5–2.5 pounds of grain per hour of work)|
How Often to Feed Your Horse
A horse should be fed at least twice a day. Although it is common for people to feed their horses at the same time, there isn’t any physiological requirement to stick to a feeding schedule. It is worth noting, however, that your horse will become accustomed to a schedule. So, if you feed at the same time every day, it can cause upset with your horse if you try and change the schedule too aggressively.
If your horse is in the pasture, they can graze at will, which is the natural way for a horse to feed and best suits their small stomachs.
Feeding everything in a single meal will cause digestive upset, including colic. The daily feed level should, therefore, be split across a minimum of two portions and fed over the day. Three meals are better, but not always practical for owners.
How to Switch Horse Feed and Feeding Schedule
Horses have delicate stomachs and digestive systems, so you must avoid making any sudden or extreme changes to their diet unless it cannot be avoided.
If you are considering changing feed, you need to do it gradually.
Changes should be made gradually over seven days.
Horses enjoy routine and they will learn a feeding schedule sooner than their humans, in most cases. Even after a few days, they will come to expect their food at the same time, and they can become stressed and angry if you change this schedule without warning.
Change a schedule gradually, in the same way you would change the feed itself. A slight change shouldn’t matter, and it is worth noting that horses do not need to be fed on a strict schedule, so you can feed at different times every day if needs be.
Can Horses Feed on Pasture Only?
In the wild, horses would feed on pasture only. They would graze all day long and their systems have evolved to extract all of the nutrients and necessary ingredients from the grass. However, it is also worth noting that very few owners have top-quality pasture. The grass can be affected by everything from freezing conditions to humid conditions, and this prevents a horse from being able to extra what it needs.
Good pasture management will certainly help, but it is more common for horse owners to introduce haylage and even some concentrates to a feeding schedule. These make up for any dietary shortfall from the pasture. Ensure that you do not have too many horses grazing in the same pasture, keep an eye on horse condition to look for signs that they might be nutritionally lacking, and be prepared to supplement with feed, where necessary.
Do Horses Need Supplements?
In the wild, horses graze on pasture all day long, and this is how they survive while getting their daily nutritional requirements. But we also expect our domesticated horses to live longer than their wild counterparts, and part of the reason for this is that we can control their nutritional intake and ensure that they have the best possible diet that encourages good health and long life. Supplements, in a lot of cases, help towards this end and are considered essential for a lot of horses.
Provide supplements if your horse is not getting everything it needs from its diet. For example, if a pasture is over-grazed or has been negatively impacted by harsh weather conditions. You should also supplement if your horse is in high stress or unusual circumstances. For example, racing and eventing can place a horse under a lot of additional stress, both physical and mental, and it will benefit from supplementation.
What to Do if Your Horse Isn’t Eating
Horses have relatively simple dietary requirements, and many of these can be met through regular grazing on pasture. Failing this, or to supplement this especially during harsh winter months, you should feed hay, supplements, and other dietary inclusions to help promote good health and prevent illness in your horse.
- You may also want to read: Do Horses Need Salt? Are Mineral or Sand Blocks a Good Source?
Featured image credit: blende12, Pixabay